Molecular Biology of THE CELL, 4th Edition
by Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, and Martin Raff
(online version provided by NCBI, all rights reserved)



Acknowledgments
Preface
A Note to the Reader

I. Introduction to the Cell

1. Cells and Genomes
The Universal Features of Cells on Earth
The Diversity of Genomes and the Tree of Life
Genetic Information in Eucaryotes
References

2. Cell Chemistry and Biosynthesis
The Chemical Components of a Cell
Catalysis and the Use of Energy by Cells
How Cells Obtain Energy from Food
References

3. Proteins
The Shape and Structure of Proteins
Protein Function
References

II. Basic Genetic Mechanisms

4. DNA and Chromosomes
The Structure and Function of DNA
Chromosomal DNA and Its Packaging in the Chromatin Fiber
The Global Structure of Chromosomes
References

5. DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
The Maintenance of DNA Sequences
DNA Replication Mechanisms
The Initiation and Completion of DNA Replication in Chromosomes
DNA Repair
General Recombination
Site-Specific Recombination
References

6. How Cells Read the Genome: From DNA to Protein
From DNA to RNA
From RNA to Protein
The RNA World and the Origins of Life
References

7. Control of Gene Expression
An Overview of Gene Control
DNA-Binding Motifs in Gene Regulatory Proteins
How Genetic Switches Work
The Molecular Genetic Mechanisms That Create Specialized Cell Types
Posttranscriptional Controls
How Genomes Evolve
References

III. Methods

8. Manipulating Proteins, DNA, and RNA
Isolating Cells and Growing Them in Culture
Fractionation of Cells
Isolating, Cloning, and Sequencing DNA
Analyzing Protein Structure and Function
Studying Gene Expression and Function
References

9. Visualizing Cells
Looking at the Structure of Cells in the Microscope
Visualizing Molecules in Living Cells
References

IV. Internal Organization of the Cell

10. Membrane Structure
The Lipid Bilayer
Membrane Proteins
References

11. Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the Electrical Properties of Membranes
Principles of Membrane Transport
Carrier Proteins and Active Membrane Transport
Ion Channels and the Electrical Properties of Membranes
References

12. Intracellular Compartments and Protein Sorting
The Compartmentalization of Cells
The Transport of Molecules between the Nucleus and the Cytosol
The Transport of Proteins into Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Peroxisomes
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
References

13. Intracellular Vesicular Traffic
The Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Transport and the Maintenance of Compartmental Diversity
Transport from the ER through the Golgi Apparatus
Transport from the Trans Golgi Network to Lysosomes
Transport into the Cell from the Plasma Membrane: Endocytosis
Transport from the Trans Golgi Network to the Cell Exterior: Exocytosis
References

14. Energy Conversion: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
The Mitochondrion
Electron-Transport Chains and Their Proton Pumps
Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis
The Genetic Systems of Mitochondria and Plastids
The Evolution of Electron-Transport Chains
References

15. Cell Communication
General Principles of Cell Communication
Signaling through G-Protein-Linked Cell-Surface Receptors
Signaling through Enzyme-Linked Cell-Surface Receptors
Signaling Pathways That Depend on Regulated Proteolysis
Signaling in Plants
References

16. The Cytoskeleton
The Self-Assembly and Dynamic Structure of Cytoskeletal Filaments
How Cells Regulate Their Cytoskeletal Filaments
Molecular Motors
The Cytoskeleton and Cell Behavior
References

17. The Cell Cycle and Programmed Cell Death
An Overview of the Cell Cycle
Components of the Cell-Cycle Control System
Intracellular Control of Cell-Cycle Events
Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)
Extracellular Control of Cell Division, Cell Growth, and Apoptosis
References

18. The Mechanics of Cell Division
An Overview of M Phase
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
References

V. Cells in Their Social Context

19. Cell Junctions, Cell Adhesion, and the Extracellular Matrix
Cell Junctions
Cell-Cell Adhesion
The Extracellular Matrix of Animals
Integrins
The Plant Cell Wall
References

20. Germ Cells and Fertilization
The Benefits of Sex
Meiosis
Primordial Germ Cells and Sex Determination in Mammals
Eggs
Sperm
Fertilization
References

21. Development of Multicellular Organisms
Universal Mechanisms of Animal Development
Caenorhabditis Elegans: Development from the Perspective of the Individual Cell
Drosophila and the Molecular Genetics of Pattern Formation: Genesis of the Body Plan
Homeotic Selector Genes and the Patterning of the Anteroposterior Axis
Organogenesis and the Patterning of Appendages
Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body
The Mouse
Neural Development
Plant Development
References

22. Histology: The Lives and Deaths of Cells in Tissues
Epidermis and Its Renewal by Stem Cells
Sensory Epithelia
The Airways and the Gut
Blood Vessels and Endothelial Cells
Renewal by Multipotent Stem Cells: Blood Cell Formation
Genesis, Modulation, and Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle
Fibroblasts and Their Transformations: The Connective-Tissue Cell Family
Stem-Cell Engineering
References

23. Cancer
Cancer as a Microevolutionary Process
The Preventable Causes of Cancer
Finding the Cancer-Critical Genes
The Molecular Basis of Cancer-Cell Behavior
Cancer Treatment: Present and Future
References

24. The Adaptive Immune System
Lymphocytes and the Cellular Basis of Adaptive Immunity
B Cells and Antibodies
The Generation of Antibody Diversity
T Cells and MHC Proteins
Helper T Cells and Lymphocyte Activation
References

25. Pathogens, Infection, and Innate Immunity
Introduction to Pathogens
Cell Biology of Infection
Innate Immunity
References

Glossary